Summary of Infection Control Measures  


Virus Incubation Period Duration of Infectivity Prophylaxis Antiviral Treatment
Measles 7-14 days 4 days before to 2 days after rash appears HNIG and vaccination Possibly ribavirin
Varicella 10-21 days 4 days before to 5 days after rash appears ZIG and vaccination Acyclovir, famciclovir,
Zoster   5 to 7 days after rash appears Acyclovir Acyclovir and valaciclovir
Mumps 14-24 days 2 days prior to and 4 days after parotitis appears Vaccination None
RSV 3-7 days 3 days prior to onset of symptoms to cessation of symptoms None Ribavirin
Influenza 1-4 days 1 day before to 4 days after onset of symptoms Vaccination, 

Amantidine (flu A), zanamivir

Amantidine (flu A), zanamivir
Parainfluenza 3-8 days 3 to 10 days None None
Rubella 14-21 days 7 days before to 10 days following rash Vaccination, ?HNIG None
Parvovirus 6-8 days 10 days prior to appearance of the rash HNIG HNIG
Rotavirus 1-3 days Adults for duration of symptoms

Children up to 5 days after end of symptoms

Vaccination None
Other diarrhoeal viruses up to 48 hours 24 to 48 hours None None
Enterovirus 2-35 days 3-4 days prior to and up to 2 weeks after symptoms Vaccination (polio) HNIG
Hepatitis A 2-6 weeks 3 weeks prior to onset to 1 week after onset of jaundice HNIG


Herpes Simplex 2-11 days Primary infection 3-4 weeks, secondary infection 3-5 days Acyclovir Acyclovir, famciclovir,


Adenovirus 5-10 days up to 10 days following onset of symptoms None None
Hepatitis B 2-6 months Variable HBIG, vaccination interferon, 3TC
HIV up to 6 months before seroconversion Lifelong AZT+ other agents AZT and other agents
Hepatitis C 5-10 days Variable None Interferon, ribavirin
VHF 2-21 days 14 days following onset of symptoms but may be as long as 2 months Ribavirin Ribavirin