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Multiple Choice Questions - Paper 2

 

Instructions for candidates

The examination consists of 30 multiple choice questions, each divided into 5 different parts. Each part contains a statement which could be true or false. Each question will have at least one part which is true. For each part, you should indicate whether you think it is true (T), false (F), or don’t know (DN). You must fill in the relevant square with a black pen. One mark will be given for each correct answer and one mark deducted for each incorrect answer. You will not be marked for those questions for which you have indicated "don’t know".
 

1. Viruses may contain
DNA
RNA
Glycoprotein
Enzymes
Cell wall
 
2. Viruses are
Obligate intracellular parasites
May divide by binary fission
Have their own metabolism
May contain enzymes for replication
May have an envelope
 
3. The following statements are true
All viruses are sensitive to antiviral agents
Virus infected cells may be transformed.
Viruses may have a lipid envelope
Viruses may produce cytopathic changes in cell culture
Some viruses are destroyed by lipid solvents
 
4. The following are direct detection methods
Detection of rotavirus antigen in faecal specimens
Western blot
CMV DEAFF test
Electron microscopy
Polymerase chain reaction
 
5. The following methods may be used for serological diagnosis
Complement-fixation tests
Polymerase chain reaction
Single Radial Haemolysis
CMV DEAFF test
Western blot


 
 

6. A serological diagnosis of a primary viral infection may be made
Detection of viral-specific IgA
Detection of viral-specific IgD
Detection of viral-specific IgE
Detection of viral-specific IgM
Seroconversion
 
  • 7. The following are examples of viral genome detection (molecular methods)
  •  
    Southern blot
    Western blot
    RIBA (Recombinant immunoblot assay)
    Branched DNA
    Polymerase chain reaction
     
    8. The following statements are true
    For cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cytopathic (CPE) effect usually appears within 24-48 hours
    For some viruses, the CPE is so characteristic that so further identification is required.
    Paramyxovirus causes syncytia formation in cell culture
    A given virus produce identical CPE in different cell cultures
    Immmunofluroescence may be used to identify a virus in cell culture
     
    9. Poliovirus can be typed by 
    Single radial haemolysis
    Haemagglutination inhibition test
    DEAFF test
    Neutralization test
    Hybridization with specific nucleic acid probes
     
  • 10. Immunofluorescence techniques can be used to detect the following directly from the specimen.
  • Chlamydia
    CMV
    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    Influenza virus
    Rabies virus


     
     

  • 11. The following statements are true for the haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test.
  • Not a quantitative test
    Treatment of patient serum is necessary to remove non-specific inhibitors
    Animal blood is necessary
    Usually more specific than complement fixation tests (CFT)
    May be used for the diagnosis of rubella infection
     
    12. Regarding cell culture
    Viruses can only be cultured using cell lines
    The presence of cytopathic effect is the only way to detect a virus
    The neutralization test is the mainstay of identification of a poliovirus isolate
    The haemagglutination inhibition test is the mainstay of identification of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) isolate
    Whole blood is the specimen of choice for many common viruses
     
    13. A standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) consists of
    Denaturation, annealing, and ligation steps
    Denaturation, annealing, and extension steps
    dNTPs
    Mg++ ions
    Taq polymerase
     
    14. Modification of a standard PCR include
    Nested PCR
    branched DNA (bDNA)
    RT-PCR (Reverse transcription PCR)
    Quantitative PCR
    3SR (Isothermal amplification)
     
    15. Safety measures for preventing PCR contamination include
    The use of uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG)
    Use of filtered pipette tips
    Separate areas for master mix, template, and PCR product operation
    Dedicated pipettes for master mix, template, and PCR products
    Ultraviolet irradiation
     


     
     

    16. The following statements are usually true
    PCR is more sensitive than branched DNA assays
    Branched DNA is more sensitive than Ligase chain reaction
    Exponential amplification occurs in PCR
    Linear amplificiation occurs in branched DNA
    PCR is extremely liable to contamination
     
    17. Clinical diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis include
    Detection of VCA-IgM
    Detection of VCA-IgA
    Seroconversion against EBNA
    Paul-Bunell test
    VCA IgG avidity test
     
  • 18. Viruses that routinely establish latent infections in human sensory ganglia include
  • Epstein-Barr virus
    Herpes Simplex Virus type 1
    Varicella-Zoster Virus
    Herpes Simplex Virus type 2
    Human herpesvirus 6
     
    19. Rapid diagnosis of CMV disease include
    CMV pp65 antigenaemia
    Conventional cell culture
    DEAFF test
    Detection of CMV-DNA in blood by PCR
    Rising antibody titres
     
    20. The following viruses are associated with respiratory infections
    Rotaviruses
    Adenoviruses
    Influenza viruses
    HTLV-1
    RSV
     


     
     

    21. The following viruses are thought to cause gastroenteritis 
    Enteroviruses
    Adenoviruses
    Norwalk-like viruses
    Astroviruses
    Rotaviruses
     
    22. The following viruses are transmitted from animals to humans
    Influenza A H5N1
    HTLV-1
    Hantaviruses
    Poliomyelitis
    Rabies
     
    23. A chronic carrier state may occur in the following:
    Hepatitis A 
    Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis Delta
    Hepatitis E
     
    24. The following viruses are transmitted by blood
    Rubella
    HIV
    Measles
    HBV
    HCV
     
  • 25. The following may be useful for prognostic purposes in HIV-infected individuals 
  • HIV envelope antibody
    HIV-p24 antigen
    CD4 count
    CD8 count
    HIV viral load


     
     

  • 26. The following markers are usually present in a hepatitis B carrier with chronic active hepatitis
  • HbsAg
    HbsAb
    Anti-HBc IgM
    HBV-DNA
    HBeAg
     
    27. Regarding viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS)
    Meningitis may occur together with encephalitis
    Enteroviruses are one of the commonest causes of CNS infections in childhood
    Electron microscopy of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a useful diagnostic test
    PCR has no role in the diagnosis of CNS infections
    The detection of antibody in the CSF is a useful diagnostic marker
     
    28. Regarding rash illnesses
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may cause a vesicular rash 
    The rash caused by parvovirus B19 is due to the presence of virus in the skin
    Measles is usually diagnosed by viral culture
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is usually diagnosed by viral culture
    VZV cannot be grown in cell culture
     
    29. Rubella infection
    can be asymptomatic
    may be indistinguishable from parvovirus B19
    can have serious side effects when occurring in a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy
    is usually preventable by vaccination
    may be acquired by having close contact with an infant with congenital rubella syndrome
     
    30. Regarding laboratory tests for rubella
    Rubella immunity may be determined by an enzyme immunoassay
    CFT is commonly used for the diagnosis of acute infection
    IgM antibody is usually detectable after the onset of rash 
    Rubella virus cannot be cultured
    Pre-natal diagnosis of rubella in a foetus is simple and reliable

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