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Respiratory Viruses Slide Set

Treatment of Parainfluenza Viruses Infection

F. Treatment

Most parainfluenza virus infections of infants and children manifest clinically as acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) although some patients may develop bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia. Where the symptoms are severe, the infants should be admitted to hospital and nursed in plastic tents supplied with cool, moistened oxygen (croupette), where they are held for a day or two until their respiration becomes unlaboured. Severe respiratory obstruction may require endotracheal intubation followed by a tracheotomy. Antibiotics are not normally prescribed in croup unless there is evidence of concomitant bacterial infection.  

G. Prevention

Nosocomial spread of parainfluenza viruses is well documented. The prevention of spread of parainfluenza virus infections in a hospital can be attempted along the following lines. Paediatric patients who are admitted to hospital with croup should be nursed in wards, preferably with cubicles or barriers, which are reserved for the syndrome alone. Patients with other acute respiratory infections such as bronchiolitis should also be nursed in separately designated areas. During an epidemic period, elective admissions to the wards of patients with conditions such as cystic fibrosis and immunodeficiency.

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Respiratory Viruses Slide Set